Iran and Russia have announced plans to step up naval co-operation efforts.
Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi, commander of the Iranian Navy, and Russian Navy chief Admiral Nikolai Anatolevich Evmenov, signed a memorandum of understanding on 29 July to expand bilateral ties. The agreement was signed during a three-day visit by Rear Adm Khanzadi to Russia.
According to Iran's Mehr News Agency, co-operative efforts will see the two countries hold joint exercises "in the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Hormuz, and the [Gulf]" before the end of the year. The Russian Ministry of Defence is also planning joint exercises with Iran in the Caspian Sea later in 2019.