- China has enhanced its strategic air defences through indigenous development and the procurement of advanced surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems from Russia.
- The procurement and testing of China's S-400 SAM system in 2018 illustrated Beijing's reliance on Russian technology and its push for greater anti-missile and anti-stealth capabilities.
- China is also expanding the deployment of its advanced SAMs, including the HQ-9, HQ-22, and S-400, and working towards greater joint service co-operation among its air defence units.
In November 2018, China tested at least two newly purchased Almaz-Antey S-400E Triumf (NATO designation SA-21 'Growler') surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Supplied by Russia in 2018, the S-400 is the most capable strategic SAM system in the People's Liberation Army Air Force's (PLAAF's) inventory and the latest addition to an air defence force with expanding capabilities.